HTTP2 Server Push的研究

永利402com官方网站 7
永利402com官方网站

HTTP2 Server Push的研究

2017/01/05 · 基础本事 ·
HTTP/2

原稿出处:
AlloyTeam   

本文头阵地址为-iOS HTTP/2 Server Push 探寻 |
李剑飞的博客

1,HTTP2的新特点。

至于HTTP2的新特征,读着可以参见笔者早前的小说,这里就不在多说了,本篇随笔主要讲一下server
push那几个天性。

HTTP,HTTP2.0,SPDY,HTTPS你应该理解的一些事

 


2,Server Push是什么。

差不离来说正是当客商的浏览器和服务器在确立链接后,服务器主动将某些财富推送给浏览器并缓存起来,这样当浏览器接下去央求这几个能源时就一贯从缓存中读取,不会在从服务器上拉了,进步了速率。举二个事例就是:

如果叁个页面有3个能源文件index.html,index.css,index.js,当浏览器央浼index.html的时候,服务器不止再次来到index.html的内容,同一时候将index.css和index.js的剧情push给浏览器,当浏览器下一次恳请那2三个公文时就足以平素从缓存中读取了。

永利402com官方网站 1

3,Server Push原理是怎样。

要想理解server
push原理,首先要知道一些定义。大家通晓HTTP2传输的格式并不像HTTP1使用文本来传输,而是启用了二进制帧(Frames)格式来传输,和server
push相关的帧重要分为这两种档案的次序:

  1. HEADE汉兰达S
    frame(央求再次来到头帧):这种帧重要指点的http央求头音信,和HTTP1的header相像。
  2. DATA frames(数据帧) :这种帧寄放真正的多寡content,用来传输。
  3. PUSH_PROMISE
    frame(推送帧):这种帧是由server端发送给client的帧,用来表示server
    push的帧,这种帧是兑现server push的重大帧类型。
  4. RST_STREAM(撤废推送帧):这种帧表示央求关闭帧,轻巧讲正是当client不想选取一些能源依旧采用timeout时会向发送方发送此帧,和PUSH_PROMISE
    frame一齐利用时表示回绝可能关闭server push。

Note:HTTP2.0有关的帧其实满含10种帧,便是因为尾巴部分数据格式的改观,才为HTTP2.0带来超多的特征,帧的引入不仅仅利于压缩数量,也低价数据的安全性和可信传输性。

叩问了相关的帧类型,上面便是现实server push的兑现进度了:

  1. 永利402com官方网站,由多路复用我们能够领略HTTP2中对此同一个域名的诉求会利用一条tcp链接而用分歧的stream
    ID来差别各自的乞求。
  2. 当client使用stream
    1恳求index.html时,server不荒谬处理index.html的乞求,并能够得到消息index.html页面还将在会呈请index.css和index.js。
  3. server使用stream 1发送PUSH_PROMISE
    frame给client告诉client作者那边能够行使stream 2来推送index.js和stream
    3来推送index.css能源。
  4. server使用stream 1平常的出殡HEADE翼虎S frame和DATA
    frames将index.html的剧情再次来到给client。
  5. client接收到PUSH_PROMISE frame获悉stream 2和stream
    3来抽取推送财富。
  6. server得到index.css和index.js便会发送HEADEGL450S frame和DATA
    frames将能源发送给client。
  7. client得到push的能源后会缓存起来当呼吁这些财富时会从直接从从缓存中读取。

下图表示了全副工艺流程:

永利402com官方网站 2

HTTP/2

4,Server Push怎么用。

既然server
push这么奇妙,那么我们怎么着使用呢?怎么设置服务器push哪些文件呢?

率先并非怀有的服务器都支持server
push,nginx前段时间还不帮助那个特点,能够在nginx的官方博客上收获验证,不过Apache和nodejs都曾经援救了server
push那二个特征,必要验证某个的是server
push这一个天性是凭仗浏览器和服务器的,所以浏览器并从未提供相应的js
api来让客户一向操作和决定push的剧情,所以只可以是透过header新闻和server的布署来促成具体的push内容,本文首要以nodejs来申明实际怎么使用server
push那后生可畏特点。

粮草先行兵马未动粮草先行粮草先行干活:下载nodejs
http2支撑,当地运营nodejs服务。

1. 第黄金年代大家运用nodejs搭建基本的server:

JavaScript

var http2 = require(‘http2’);   var url=require(‘url’); var
fs=require(‘fs’); var mine=require(‘./mine’).types; var
path=require(‘path’);   var server = http2.createServer({   key:
fs.readFileSync(‘./zs/localhost.key’),   cert:
fs.readFileSync(‘./zs/localhost.crt’) }, function(request, response) {
    var pathname = url.parse(request.url).pathname;     var real帕特h =
path.join(“my”, pathname);    //这里安装自身的文件名称;       var
pushArray = [];     var ext = path.extname(realPath);     ext = ext ?
ext.slice(1) : ‘unknown’;     var contentType = mine[ext] ||
“text/plain”;       if (fs.existsSync(realPath)) {  
        response.writeHead(200, {             ‘Content-Type’:
contentType         });  
        response.write(fs.readFileSync(realPath,’binary’));       } else
{       response.writeHead(404, {           ‘Content-Type’: ‘text/plain’
      });         response.write(“This request URL ” + pathname + ” was
not found on this server.”);       response.end();     }   });  
server.listen(443, function() {   console.log(‘listen on 443’); });

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var http2 = require(‘http2’);
 
var url=require(‘url’);
var fs=require(‘fs’);
var mine=require(‘./mine’).types;
var path=require(‘path’);
 
var server = http2.createServer({
  key: fs.readFileSync(‘./zs/localhost.key’),
  cert: fs.readFileSync(‘./zs/localhost.crt’)
}, function(request, response) {
    var pathname = url.parse(request.url).pathname;
    var realPath = path.join("my", pathname);    //这里设置自己的文件名称;
 
    var pushArray = [];
    var ext = path.extname(realPath);
    ext = ext ? ext.slice(1) : ‘unknown’;
    var contentType = mine[ext] || "text/plain";
 
    if (fs.existsSync(realPath)) {
 
        response.writeHead(200, {
            ‘Content-Type’: contentType
        });
 
        response.write(fs.readFileSync(realPath,’binary’));
 
    } else {
      response.writeHead(404, {
          ‘Content-Type’: ‘text/plain’
      });
 
      response.write("This request URL " + pathname + " was not found on this server.");
      response.end();
    }
 
});
 
server.listen(443, function() {
  console.log(‘listen on 443’);
});

这几行代码就是轻松搭建四个nodejs
http2服务,展开chrome,大家得以看来有着诉求都走了http2,同一时候也可以注脚多路复用的性状。

永利402com官方网站 3

此间供给小心几点:

  1. 制造http2的nodejs服必得需时依据https的,因为今后主流的浏览器都要援救SSL/TLS的http2,证书和私钥能够本人通过OPENSSL生成。
  2. node http2的连带api和常规的node httpserver相似,能够一向利用。

  3. 安装大家的server push:

JavaScript

var pushItem = response.push(‘/css/bootstrap.min.css’, {        request:
{             accept: ‘*/\*’        },       response: {
            ‘content-type’: ‘text/css’      } });
pushItem.end(fs.readFileSync(‘/css/bootstrap.min.css’,’binary’));

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var pushItem = response.push(‘/css/bootstrap.min.css’, {
       request: {
            accept: ‘*/\*’
       },
      response: {
            ‘content-type’: ‘text/css’
     }
});
pushItem.end(fs.readFileSync(‘/css/bootstrap.min.css’,’binary’));

大家设置了bootstrap.min.css来经过server
push到大家的浏览器,我们能够在浏览器中查阅:

永利402com官方网站 4

能够观察,运转server push的能源timelime相当的慢,大大加速了css的获得时间。

此地必要在乎上边几点:

  1. 我们调用response.push(),正是一定于server发起了PUSH_PROMISE
    frame来报告浏览器bootstrap.min.css将会由server push来获取。
  2. response.push()重返的目的时多个健康的ServerResponse,end(),writeHeader()等艺术都可以健康调用。
  3. 那边意气风发旦针对某些财富调用response.push()即发起PUSH_PROMISE
    frame后,要做好容错机制,因为浏览器在下一次倡议这些能源时会且只会等待那几个server
    push回来的资源,这里要抓牢超时和容错即上面包车型客车代码:
  4. JavaScript

    try {
        pushItem.end(fs.readFileSync(‘my/css/bootstrap.min.css’,’binary’));
        } catch(e) {        response.writeHead(404, {           
    ‘Content-Type’: ‘text/plain’        });        response.end(‘request
    error’); }   pushItem.stream.on(‘error’, function(err){
        response.end(err.message); });   pushItem.stream.on(‘finish’,
    function(err){    console.log(‘finish’); });

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    try {
        pushItem.end(fs.readFileSync(‘my/css/bootstrap.min.css’,’binary’));
        } catch(e) {
           response.writeHead(404, {
               ‘Content-Type’: ‘text/plain’
           });
           response.end(‘request error’);
    }
     
    pushItem.stream.on(‘error’, function(err){
        response.end(err.message);
    });
     
    pushItem.stream.on(‘finish’, function(err){
       console.log(‘finish’);
    });

    地点的代码你恐怕会发觉好些个和平常nodejs的httpserver区别等的东西,那正是stream,其实任何http2都以以stream为单位,这里的stream其实能够知晓成二个哀告,更加多的api能够参照:node-http2。

  5. 最后给大家推荐七个鬼子写的非常服务http2的node
    server有兴趣的能够品味一下。

HTTP/2 Server Push 是什么

当顾客的浏览器和服务器在确立链接后,服务器主动将一些财富推送给浏览器并缓存起来,那样当浏览器接下去恳求那些财富时就向来从缓存中读取,不会在从服务器上拉了,进步了速率。举贰个事例就是:

万意气风发二个页面有3个财富文件index.html,index.css,index.js,当浏览器央浼index.html的时候,服务器不止再次来到index.html的从头到尾的经过,同期将index.css和index.js的开始和结果push给浏览器,当浏览器后一次乞求那2多个文本时就能够直接从缓存中读取了。

日常来讲图所示:

永利402com官方网站 5

Apple-http2ServerPush

5,Server Push相关难题。

  1. 我们知晓以后大家web的资源平日都是放在CDN上的,那么CDN的优势和server
    push的优势有什么不一致呢,到底是哪些一点也极快呢?那几个难题小编也直接在研究,本文的相干demo都只能算做三个演示,具体的线上实践还在展开中。
  2. 鉴于HTTP2的生机勃勃部分新特点举个例子多路复用,server
    push等等都以基于同八个域名的,所以那也许会对我们前边对于HTTP1的部分优化措施举例(财富拆分域名,合并等等)不分明适用。
  3. server
    push不仅能够看做拉取静态能源,我们的cgi须求即ajax须要同样能够动用server
    push来发送数据。
  4. 最周到的结果是CDN域名协理HTTP2,web server域名也还要协助HTTP2。

 

参谋资料:

  1. HTTP2官方正式:
  2. 维基百科:
  3. 1 赞 1 收藏
    评论

永利402com官方网站 6

HTTP/2 Server Push 原理是何许

要想驾驭server
push原理,首先要精晓一些概念。我们驾驭HTTP/2传输的格式并不像HTTP1使用文本来传输,而是启用了二进制帧(Frames)格式来传输,和server
push相关的帧首要分为这两种等级次序:

  1. HEADEEvoqueS
    frame(央求重回头帧):这种帧首要辅导的http央浼头新闻,和HTTP1的header相近。
  2. DATA frames(数据帧) :这种帧存放真正的数据content,用来传输。
  3. PUSH_PROMISE
    frame(推送帧):这种帧是由server端发送给client的帧,用来代表server
    push的帧,这种帧是兑现server push的主要性帧类型。
  4. RST_STREAM(打消推送帧):这种帧表示哀告关闭帧,简单讲正是当client不想接纳有个别资源依旧选用timeout时会向发送方发送此帧,和PUSH_PROMISE
    frame一同使用时表示谢绝只怕关闭server push。

(PS:HTTP/2相关的帧其实包蕴10种帧,正是因为尾部数据格式的更改,才为HTTP/2带来众多的特点,帧的引进不止利于减量,也方便数据的安全性和保险传输性。)

精晓了有关的帧类型,上边便是具体server push的实现进度了:

  1. 由多路复用大家得以领略HTTP/第22中学对于同一个域名的伸手会选取一条tcp链接而用分歧的stream
    ID来差别各自的乞请。
  2. 当client使用stream
    1须求index.html时,server不荒谬管理index.html的央求,并得以查出index.html页面还将在会呈请index.css和index.js。
  3. server使用stream 1发送PUSH_PROMISE
    frame给client告诉client小编那边能够选拔stream 2来推送index.js和stream
    3来推送index.css财富。
  4. server使用stream 1寻常的出殡HEADE福睿斯S frame和DATA
    frames将index.html的剧情再次回到给client。
  5. client接收到PUSH_PROMISE frame得悉stream 2和stream
    3来抽出推送财富。
  6. server获得index.css和index.js便会发送HEADE本田UR-VS frame和DATA
    frames将财富发送给client。
  7. client得到push的能源后会缓存起来当呼吁那几个财富时会从直接从从缓存中读取。

Server Push 怎么用

使用 nghttp2 调试 HTTP/2 流量

翻开 HTTP/2 流量的两种艺术

  • 在 Chrome 地址栏输入 chrome://net-internals/#http2,使用 Chrome
    自带的 HTTP/2 调节和测量检验工具;
    使用方便,但受限于 Chrome 浏览器,对于 Chrome 不援救的 h2c(HTTP/2
    Cleartext,没有安顿 TLS 的
    HTTP/2)公约不只怕。同一时候,那几个工具展现的新闻透过了拆解剖析和筛选,远远不足完备。
  • 使用 Wireshark 调试 HTTP/2 流量;
    Wireshark 位于服务端和浏览器之间,当做的是中档人剧中人物,用它查看
    HTTP/2 over HTTPS
    流量时,必须具有网址私钥只怕依附浏览器分享对称密钥,手艺解密 TLS
    流量,配置起来比较费心。

nghttp2,是一个用 C 完毕的 HTTP/2 库,帮助h2c。它能够做为别的软件的大器晚成有个别,为其提供 HTTP/2 相关职能(举个例子 curl 的
HTTP/2 功用就是用的 nghttp2)。除此而外,它还提供了多个有效的 HTTP/2
工具:

  • nghttp:HTTP/2 客户端;
  • nghttpd:HTTP/2 服务端;
  • nghttpx:HTTP/2 代理,提供 HTTP/1、HTTP/2 等合计时期的更换;
  • h2load:HTTP/2 质量测验工具;

nghttp2 安装

先来用 brew 看一下有未有 nghttp 相关的库:

~ brew search nghttp
nghttp2

如上所述是有 nghttp2 的,再用 brew 看下供给安装哪些条件:

~ brew info nghttp2
nghttp2: stable 1.21.0 (bottled), HEAD
HTTP/2 C Library
https://nghttp2.org/
Not installed
From: https://github.com/Homebrew/homebrew-core/blob/master/Formula/nghttp2.rb
==> Dependencies
Build: sphinx-doc ✘, pkg-config ✔, cunit ✘
Required: c-ares ✘, libev ✘, openssl ✔, libevent ✘, jansson ✘, boost ✘, spdylay ✘
Recommended: jemalloc ✘
==> Requirements
Optional: python3 ✔
==> Options
--with-examples
    Compile and install example programs
--with-python3
    Build python3 bindings
--without-docs
    Don't build man pages
--without-jemalloc
    Build without jemalloc support
--HEAD
    Install HEAD version

看来需求的依赖性还挺多。

使用 brew 安装 nghttp2 :

brew install nghttp2

万事稳妥后,nghttp2 提供的多少个工具就足以平素用了。

nghttp

nghttp 做为叁个意义生机勃勃体化的 HTTP/2 顾客端,非常相符用来查阅和调理 HTTP/2
流量。它支持的参数相当多,通过法定文书档案也许 nghttp -h
都能查看。最常用多少个参数如下:

  • -v, –verbose,输出完整的 debug 新闻;
  • -n, –null-out,丢掉下载的多寡;
  • -a, –get-assets,下载 html 中的 css、js、image 等外链能源;
  • -H, –header = < HEADE讴歌MDX >,加多诉求底部字段,如 -H’:method:
    PUT’;
  • -u, –upgrade,使用 HTTP 的 Upgrade 机制来研讨 HTTP/2 合同,用于
    h2c,详见上面包车型地铁例证;

以下是行使 nghttp 访谈
https://h2o.examp1e.net
的结果。从调节和测量试验消息中得以清楚看出 h2c 协商以至 Server Push 的不论什么事进程:

nghttp -nv 'https://h2o.examp1e.net'
[  0.201] Connected
The negotiated protocol: h2
[  1.180] send SETTINGS frame <length=12, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (niv=2)
          [SETTINGS_MAX_CONCURRENT_STREAMS(0x03):100]
          [SETTINGS_INITIAL_WINDOW_SIZE(0x04):65535]
[  1.180] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=3>
          (dep_stream_id=0, weight=201, exclusive=0)
[  1.180] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=5>
          (dep_stream_id=0, weight=101, exclusive=0)
[  1.180] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=7>
          (dep_stream_id=0, weight=1, exclusive=0)
[  1.180] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=9>
          (dep_stream_id=7, weight=1, exclusive=0)
[  1.180] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=11>
          (dep_stream_id=3, weight=1, exclusive=0)
[  1.180] send HEADERS frame <length=39, flags=0x25, stream_id=13>
          ; END_STREAM | END_HEADERS | PRIORITY
          (padlen=0, dep_stream_id=11, weight=16, exclusive=0)
          ; Open new stream
          :method: GET
          :path: /
          :scheme: https
          :authority: h2o.examp1e.net
          accept: */*
          accept-encoding: gzip, deflate
          user-agent: nghttp2/1.21.1
[  1.373] recv SETTINGS frame <length=12, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (niv=2)
          [SETTINGS_MAX_CONCURRENT_STREAMS(0x03):100]
          [SETTINGS_INITIAL_WINDOW_SIZE(0x04):16777216]
[  1.373] recv SETTINGS frame <length=0, flags=0x01, stream_id=0>
          ; ACK
          (niv=0)
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) :method: GET
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) :scheme: https
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) :authority: h2o.examp1e.net
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) :path: /search/jquery-1.9.1.min.js
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) accept: */*
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) accept-encoding: gzip, deflate
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) user-agent: nghttp2/1.21.1
[  1.373] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=59, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0, promised_stream_id=2)
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=2) :status: 200
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=2) server: h2o/2.2.0-beta2
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=2) date: Mon, 10 Apr 2017 06:30:29 GMT
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=2) content-type: application/javascript
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=2) last-modified: Thu, 14 May 2015 04:10:14 GMT
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=2) etag: "55542026-169d5"
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=2) accept-ranges: bytes
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=2) x-http2-push: pushed
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=2) content-length: 92629
[  1.373] recv HEADERS frame <length=126, flags=0x04, stream_id=2>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0)
          ; First push response header
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) :method: GET
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) :scheme: https
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) :authority: h2o.examp1e.net
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) :path: /search/oktavia-jquery-ui.js
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) accept: */*
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) accept-encoding: gzip, deflate
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) user-agent: nghttp2/1.21.1
[  1.373] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=33, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0, promised_stream_id=4)
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=4) :status: 200
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=4) server: h2o/2.2.0-beta2
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=4) date: Mon, 10 Apr 2017 06:30:29 GMT
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=4) content-type: application/javascript
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=4) last-modified: Thu, 14 May 2015 04:10:14 GMT
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=4) etag: "55542026-1388"
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=4) accept-ranges: bytes
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=4) x-http2-push: pushed
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=4) content-length: 5000
[  1.374] recv HEADERS frame <length=28, flags=0x04, stream_id=4>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0)
          ; First push response header
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :method: GET
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :scheme: https
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :authority: h2o.examp1e.net
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :path: /search/oktavia-english-search.js
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) accept: */*
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) accept-encoding: gzip, deflate
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) user-agent: nghttp2/1.21.1
[  1.374] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=35, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0, promised_stream_id=6)
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=6) :status: 200
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=6) server: h2o/2.2.0-beta2
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=6) date: Mon, 10 Apr 2017 06:30:29 GMT
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=6) content-type: application/javascript
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=6) last-modified: Thu, 14 May 2015 04:10:14 GMT
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=6) etag: "55542026-34dd6"
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=6) accept-ranges: bytes
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=6) x-http2-push: pushed
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=6) content-length: 216534
[  1.374] recv HEADERS frame <length=31, flags=0x04, stream_id=6>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0)
          ; First push response header
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :method: GET
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :scheme: https
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :authority: h2o.examp1e.net
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :path: /assets/style.css
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) accept: */*
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) accept-encoding: gzip, deflate
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) user-agent: nghttp2/1.21.1
[  1.374] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=24, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0, promised_stream_id=8)
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=8) :status: 200
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=8) server: h2o/2.2.0-beta2
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=8) date: Mon, 10 Apr 2017 06:30:29 GMT
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=8) content-type: text/css
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=8) last-modified: Tue, 20 Sep 2016 05:27:06 GMT
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=8) etag: "57e0c8aa-1586"
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=8) accept-ranges: bytes
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=8) x-http2-push: pushed
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=8) content-length: 5510
[  1.374] recv HEADERS frame <length=58, flags=0x04, stream_id=8>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0)
          ; First push response header
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :method: GET
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :scheme: https
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :authority: h2o.examp1e.net
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :path: /assets/searchstyle.css
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) accept: */*
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) accept-encoding: gzip, deflate
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) user-agent: nghttp2/1.21.1
[  1.374] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=28, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0, promised_stream_id=10)
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=10) :status: 200
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=10) server: h2o/2.2.0-beta2
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=10) date: Mon, 10 Apr 2017 06:30:29 GMT
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=10) content-type: text/css
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=10) last-modified: Tue, 20 Sep 2016 05:27:06 GMT
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=10) etag: "57e0c8aa-8dd"
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=10) accept-ranges: bytes
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=10) x-http2-push: pushed
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=10) content-length: 2269
[  1.374] recv HEADERS frame <length=27, flags=0x04, stream_id=10>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0)
          ; First push response header
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :status: 200
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) server: h2o/2.2.0-beta2
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) date: Mon, 10 Apr 2017 06:30:29 GMT
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) link: </search/jquery-1.9.1.min.js>; rel=preload
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) link: </search/oktavia-jquery-ui.js>; rel=preload
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) link: </search/oktavia-english-search.js>; rel=preload
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) link: </assets/style.css>; rel=preload
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) link: </assets/searchstyle.css>; rel=preload
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) cache-control: no-cache
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) content-type: text/html
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) last-modified: Wed, 05 Apr 2017 06:55:14 GMT
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) etag: "58e494d2-1665"
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) accept-ranges: bytes
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) set-cookie: h2o_casper=AmgAAAAAAAAAAAAYxfEYAAABSA; Path=/; Expires=Tue, 01 Jan 2030 00:00:00 GMT; Secure
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) content-length: 5733
[  1.374] recv HEADERS frame <length=304, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0)
          ; First response header
[  1.375] send SETTINGS frame <length=0, flags=0x01, stream_id=0>
          ; ACK
          (niv=0)
[  1.566] recv DATA frame <length=16137, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  1.567] recv DATA frame <length=5000, flags=0x01, stream_id=4>
          ; END_STREAM
[  1.567] recv DATA frame <length=4915, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  1.766] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=8>
[  1.766] recv DATA frame <length=2269, flags=0x01, stream_id=10>
          ; END_STREAM
[  1.766] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (window_size_increment=33120)
[  1.767] recv DATA frame <length=9065, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  1.970] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  1.970] recv DATA frame <length=2681, flags=0x01, stream_id=8>
          ; END_STREAM
[  1.971] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
          (window_size_increment=33855)
[  1.971] recv DATA frame <length=10072, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  2.172] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  2.172] recv DATA frame <length=4248, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  2.173] recv DATA frame <length=4248, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  2.173] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (window_size_increment=34002)
[  2.173] recv DATA frame <length=4248, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  2.577] recv DATA frame <length=4248, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  2.578] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  2.579] recv DATA frame <length=12762, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  2.777] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  2.777] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
          (window_size_increment=33241)
[  2.778] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  3.177] recv DATA frame <length=8505, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  3.177] recv DATA frame <length=5667, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  3.177] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (window_size_increment=33993)
[  3.177] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  3.177] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  3.378] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  3.579] recv DATA frame <length=11343, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  3.580] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (window_size_increment=34002)
[  3.580] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
          (window_size_increment=33984)
[  3.583] recv DATA frame <length=7086, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  3.779] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  4.186] recv DATA frame <length=7086, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  4.186] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  4.186] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  4.395] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  4.396] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  4.602] recv DATA frame <length=5667, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  4.602] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
          (window_size_increment=33993)
[  4.602] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  4.602] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (window_size_increment=33975)
[  4.808] recv DATA frame <length=4248, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  4.809] recv DATA frame <length=6379, flags=0x01, stream_id=2>
          ; END_STREAM
[  5.010] recv DATA frame <length=3536, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  5.420] recv DATA frame <length=8505, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  5.420] recv DATA frame <length=5667, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  5.628] recv DATA frame <length=4248, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  5.842] recv DATA frame <length=4248, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  5.842] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  5.842] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (window_size_increment=34002)
[  5.842] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
          (window_size_increment=33281)
[  6.057] recv DATA frame <length=4248, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  6.273] recv DATA frame <length=8505, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  6.490] recv DATA frame <length=9924, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  6.490] recv DATA frame <length=4248, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  6.706] recv DATA frame <length=4248, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  6.706] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (window_size_increment=34002)
[  6.706] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
          (window_size_increment=34002)
[  6.924] recv DATA frame <length=8505, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  7.141] recv DATA frame <length=8505, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  7.361] recv DATA frame <length=8505, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  7.361] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (window_size_increment=34020)
[  7.574] recv DATA frame <length=9924, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  7.574] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
          (window_size_increment=34029)
[  7.787] recv DATA frame <length=9924, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  7.787] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  7.998] recv DATA frame <length=7086, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  8.210] recv DATA frame <length=9924, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  8.210] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (window_size_increment=34011)
[  8.210] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
          (window_size_increment=34011)
[  8.425] recv DATA frame <length=11343, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  8.426] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  8.426] recv DATA frame <length=4053, flags=0x01, stream_id=6>
          ; END_STREAM
[  8.631] recv DATA frame <length=4443, flags=0x00, stream_id=13>
[  8.633] recv DATA frame <length=1290, flags=0x01, stream_id=13>
          ; END_STREAM
[  8.633] send GOAWAY frame <length=8, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (last_stream_id=10, error_code=NO_ERROR(0x00), opaque_data(0)=[])

自然,我们也足以行使 grep 搜索出来 server push 的相关 stream:

nghttp -nv 'https://h2o.examp1e.net' | grep 'PUSH_PROMISE'
[  1.582] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=59, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
[  1.582] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=33, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
[  1.582] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=35, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
[  1.582] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=24, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
[  1.582] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=28, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>

使用 NodeJS 搭建 HTTP/2 服务器

在大前端的时期背景下,客商端支出不会点 JavaScript
都快混不下去了,作者前段时间在自个儿司前端轮岗了两周,再增添早先也写过
ReactNative,但要么认为前端变化之快领人感叹,革命尚未截至,同志仍需努力啊。

大家直接上代码:

var http2 = require('http2');// http2
var url=require('url'); // https://www.npmjs.com/package/url
var fs=require('fs'); // https://www.npmjs.com/package/fs
var mine=require('mine');
var path=require('path'); // 路径

var server = http2.createServer({
  key: fs.readFileSync('./localhost.key'),
  cert: fs.readFileSync('./localhost.crt')
}, function(request, response) {

    // var pathname = url.parse(request.url).pathname;
    var realPath = './push.json' ;//path.join(pathname,"push.json");    //这里设置自己的文件路径,这是该次response返回的内容;

    var pushArray = [];
    var ext = path.extname(realPath);
    ext = ext ? ext.slice(1) : 'unknown';
    var contentType = mine[ext] || "text/plain";

    if (fs.existsSync(realPath)) {

        console.log('success')
        response.writeHead(200, {
            'Content-Type': contentType
        });

        response.write(fs.readFileSync(realPath,'binary'));

        // 注意 push 路径必须是绝对路径,这是该次 server push 返回的内容
        var pushItem = response.push('/Users/f.li/Desktop/http2-nodeServer/newpush.json', {
                response: {
                  'content-type': contentType
                }    
        });
        pushItem.end(fs.readFileSync('/Users/f.li/Desktop/http2-nodeServer/newpush.json','binary'),()=>{
          console.log('newpush end')
        });

        response.end();

    } else {
      response.writeHead(404, {
          'Content-Type': 'text/plain'
      });

      response.write("This request URL " + realPath + " was not found on this server.");
      response.end();
    }

});

server.listen(3000, function() {
  console.log('listen on 3000');
});

此处须求潜心几点:

  • 创立http2的nodejs服务必需时遵照https的,因为前不久主流的浏览器都要扶植SSL/TLS的http2,证书和私钥能够和睦通过OPENSSL生成。
  • node http2的连带api和例行的node httpserver相近,可以直接选取。

选用 nghttp 测验一下我们的代码有未有实行 server push:

~ nghttp -nv 'https://localhost:3000/'
[  0.007] Connected
The negotiated protocol: h2
[  0.029] recv SETTINGS frame <length=0, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (niv=0)
[  0.029] send SETTINGS frame <length=12, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (niv=2)
          [SETTINGS_MAX_CONCURRENT_STREAMS(0x03):100]
          [SETTINGS_INITIAL_WINDOW_SIZE(0x04):65535]
[  0.029] send SETTINGS frame <length=0, flags=0x01, stream_id=0>
          ; ACK
          (niv=0)
[  0.029] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=3>
          (dep_stream_id=0, weight=201, exclusive=0)
[  0.029] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=5>
          (dep_stream_id=0, weight=101, exclusive=0)
[  0.029] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=7>
          (dep_stream_id=0, weight=1, exclusive=0)
[  0.029] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=9>
          (dep_stream_id=7, weight=1, exclusive=0)
[  0.029] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=11>
          (dep_stream_id=3, weight=1, exclusive=0)
[  0.029] send HEADERS frame <length=38, flags=0x25, stream_id=13>
          ; END_STREAM | END_HEADERS | PRIORITY
          (padlen=0, dep_stream_id=11, weight=16, exclusive=0)
          ; Open new stream
          :method: GET
          :path: /
          :scheme: https
          :authority: localhost:3000
          accept: */*
          accept-encoding: gzip, deflate
          user-agent: nghttp2/1.21.1
[  0.043] recv SETTINGS frame <length=0, flags=0x01, stream_id=0>
          ; ACK
          (niv=0)
[  0.049] recv (stream_id=13) :status: 200
[  0.049] recv (stream_id=13) content-type: text/plain
[  0.049] recv (stream_id=13) date: Tue, 11 Apr 2017 08:34:46 GMT
[  0.049] recv HEADERS frame <length=34, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0)
          ; First response header
[  0.049] recv DATA frame <length=35, flags=0x00, stream_id=13>
[  0.049] recv (stream_id=13) :method: GET
[  0.049] recv (stream_id=13) :scheme: https
[  0.050] recv (stream_id=13) :authority: localhost:3000
[  0.050] recv (stream_id=13) :path: /Users/f.li/Desktop/http2-nodeServer/newpush.json
[  0.050] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=56, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0, promised_stream_id=2)
[  0.050] recv DATA frame <length=0, flags=0x01, stream_id=13>
          ; END_STREAM
[  0.050] recv (stream_id=2) :status: 200
[  0.050] recv (stream_id=2) date: Tue, 11 Apr 2017 08:34:46 GMT
[  0.050] recv HEADERS frame <length=2, flags=0x04, stream_id=2>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0)
          ; First push response header
[  0.050] recv DATA frame <length=21, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  0.050] recv DATA frame <length=0, flags=0x01, stream_id=2>
          ; END_STREAM
[  0.050] send GOAWAY frame <length=8, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (last_stream_id=2, error_code=NO_ERROR(0x00), opaque_data(0)=[])

看到了 PUSH_PROMISE 的帧,表明举办了 server push。

无差别于也足以利用chrome查看 server push,如下图所示:

永利402com官方网站 7

chrome 查看 http2 server push

服务端介绍宗旨竣事。下边我们来介绍部分 iOS 客户端对 Server Push 的行使。

iOS 使用 HTTP/2 Server Push

Apple 在此上头做的很好,基本落到实处了顾客端无感调用http/2 server
push。不过作者查阅了多少材质,今后唯有iOS 10 辅助 http/2。

从来上代码吧:

#import "ViewController.h"

@interface ViewController ()<NSURLSessionDelegate>

@property(nonatomic,strong)NSURLSession *session;

@end

@implementation ViewController

- (void)viewDidLoad
{
    [super viewDidLoad];
    // Do any additional setup after loading the view, typically from a nib.

}
#pragma mark - Touch
- (void)touchesBegan:(NSSet<UITouch *> *)touches withEvent:(UIEvent *)event
{
    [self urlSession];
}
#pragma mark - 发送请求
- (void)urlSession
{
    NSURL *url = [NSURL URLWithString:@"https://localhost:3000"];

    //发送HTTPS请求是需要对网络会话设置代理的
    _session = [NSURLSession sessionWithConfiguration:[NSURLSessionConfiguration defaultSessionConfiguration] delegate:self delegateQueue:[NSOperationQueue mainQueue]];

    NSURLSessionDataTask *dataTask = [_session dataTaskWithURL:url completionHandler:^(NSData * _Nullable data, NSURLResponse * _Nullable response, NSError * _Nullable error) {
        NSLog(@"%@",[[NSString alloc] initWithData:data encoding:NSUTF8StringEncoding]);
        // 收到该次请求后,立即请求下次的内容
        [self urlSessionPush];

    }];

    [dataTask resume];
}

- (void)urlSessionPush
{
    NSURL *url = [NSURL URLWithString:@"https://localhost:3000/Users/f.li/Desktop/http2-nodeServer/newpush.json"];
    NSURLSessionDataTask *dataTask = [_session dataTaskWithURL:url completionHandler:^(NSData * _Nullable data, NSURLResponse * _Nullable response, NSError * _Nullable error) {
        NSLog(@"%@",[[NSString alloc] initWithData:data encoding:NSUTF8StringEncoding]);
    }];
    [dataTask resume];
}

#pragma mark - URLSession Delegate
- (void)URLSession:(NSURLSession *)session didReceiveChallenge:(NSURLAuthenticationChallenge *)challenge completionHandler:(void (^)(NSURLSessionAuthChallengeDisposition, NSURLCredential * _Nullable))completionHandler
{
    // 这里还要设置下 plist 中设置 ATS
    if (![challenge.protectionSpace.authenticationMethod isEqualToString:@"NSURLAuthenticationMethodServerTrust"])
    {
        return;
    }
    NSURLCredential *credential = [[NSURLCredential alloc] initWithTrust:challenge.protectionSpace.serverTrust];
    completionHandler(NSURLSessionAuthChallengeUseCredential,credential);
}


- (void)URLSession:(NSURLSession *)session task:(NSURLSessionTask *)task didFinishCollectingMetrics:(NSURLSessionTaskMetrics *)metrics
{
    NSArray *fetchTypes = @[ @"Unknown", @"Network Load", @"Server Push", @"Local Cache"];

    for(NSURLSessionTaskTransactionMetrics *transactionMetrics in [metrics transactionMetrics])
    {

        NSLog(@"protocol[%@] reuse[%d] fetch:%@ - %@", [transactionMetrics networkProtocolName], [transactionMetrics isReusedConnection], fetchTypes[[transactionMetrics resourceFetchType]], [[transactionMetrics request] URL]);

        if([transactionMetrics resourceFetchType] == NSURLSessionTaskMetricsResourceFetchTypeServerPush)
        {
            NSLog(@"Asset was server pushed");
        }
    }
}

- (void)didReceiveMemoryWarning
{
    [super didReceiveMemoryWarning];
    // Dispose of any resources that can be recreated.
}

@end

分别看下服务端和客商端的Log:
客户端:

Http2ServerPush[2525:274943] protocol[h2] reuse[0] fetch:Network Load - https://localhost:3000/
Http2ServerPush[2525:274943] {"message":" http2.0 server is ok"}
Http2ServerPush[2525:274943] protocol[h2] reuse[1] fetch:Server Push - https://localhost:3000/Users/f.li/Desktop/http2-nodeServer/newpush.json
Http2ServerPush[2525:274943] Asset was server pushed
Http2ServerPush[2525:274943] {"message":"newPush"}

服务端:

http2-nodeServer npm start

> http2-nodeServer@1.0.0 start /Users/f.li/Desktop/http2-nodeServer
> node index.js

listen on 3000
success
newpush end

总的看确实是客商端发出了一回倡议,但是服务端只响应了一遍(该次响应+ server
push)

正文相关德姆o

  • Github:lijianfeigeek

参谋文献

  • HTTP2 Server Push的研究 |
    AlloyTeam
  • 使用 nghttp2 调试 HTTP/2 流量 | JerryQu
    的小站
  • objective c – HTTP/2 Server Push in iOS 10 – Stack
    Overflow
  • 使用NSURLSession或者AFN发送HTTPS请求 –
    简书

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